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It can vary considerably and depends on:

  • Type of surgery (large operations, e.g. removal of kidney or bowel, cancer surgery, aneurysm repair)
  • Experience and skills of the surgeon
  • Individual patient anatomy & build
  • Underlying pathology (e.g. tumour size, other structures/blood vessels affected)
  • Patients medical conditions (e.g. clotting)
  • Medication that affects blood clotting (e.g. Warfarin, Clopidogrel, Rivaroxaban)
  • Complications during an operation (tissue trauma, bleeding)
  • Some anaesthetic techniques may help to reduce blood loss (e.g. Spinal, Epidural, Hypotensive anaesthesia)

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