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Patients are continously monitoredby the anaesthetist throughout the operation / anaesthetic.

Non-invasive monitoring is used on every patient, including monitoring of the heart rate and trace (ECG), blood pressure, oxygenation of blood (pulse oximeter) and temperature.

In some patients more invasive monitoring is required, such as an arterial line (beat-by-beat blood pressure), cental venous pressure (CVP via a neck line), cardiac output monitoring (for goal directed fluid therapy), BIS-monitoring (depth of anaesthesia), urinary output (through a catheter in the bladder), pulmonary artery catheter (PA-catheter for more accurate fluid management, e.g. in cardiac patients).

Fluid Management and Blood pressure medication

Balanced fluids are administered through an intravenous cannula (crystalloids such as Plasmalyte, colloids such as Gelafusin) as required. Medication may be injected to either increase or decrease to keep it in a normal range.

Blood is administered as required after a major blood loss during an operation. Link to blood transfusion

Pain killers and anti-sickness medication

Many anaesthetists administer short and longer acting pain killers (e.g. Fentanyl, Alfentanil, Morphine, Oxycodone) and anti-sickness medication (e.g. Dexamethasone, Ondansetron, Cyclizine, Domperidone) during the anaesthetic / operation.

Warming, DVT-prophylaxis

For longer operations (over 30 or 60 minutes) patients are covered with a warming blanket which is connected to a warming device (e.g. Bair Hugger) to maintain the body temperature above 36 degrees Celcius. Every patient has compression stockings before an operation to prevent the formation of blood clots in the legs with immobility during and after an operation. For longer operations, hydraulic compression devices may be attached to the lower legs (e.g. Flowtrons)



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