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Prevention, early diagnosis and effective treatment have been shown to reduce the risk of developing chronic pain (more than 3 months) after an operation.

Acute Pain is usually treated with regular basic pain killers (e.g. Paracetamol and Ibuprofen) in combination with stronger pain killers (e.g. Codeine, Tramadol, Tapentadol). Stronger opioids may be prescribed as well, such as Morphine, Oxycodone, Fentanyl.

Other additions are anti-sickness, blood-thinning (to prevent blood clots in the veins = DVT) and atni-itching medication and laxatives (to prevent constipation).

Pain killers can be given by mouth (as tablets or liquids), rectally (as suppositories), injection into a vein, muscle or under the skin (buttock, thigh, arm).

Epidurals may be useful for larger operations (e.g. laparotomies, nephrectomy, pelvic operation, leg amputation). Regional anaesthetic techniques (nerve blocks) reduce post-operative pain and evidently the development of chronic pain after an operation.

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