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(methods may vary between hospitals and with availability)

  • Be prepared / Be Informed

  • Focus on Calm Breathing (less distraction by pain)

  • Practise Relaxation prior to labour

  • Massage during labour

  • Birthing Pool (warm bath - ask your midwife about availability)

  • TENS (= Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation)
    - a gentle electrical current is passed through 4 pads on your back

  • Aromatherapy (e.g. essenial oils)

  • Reflexology (foot massage)

  • Acupuncture (insertion of needles in & under the skin to relief pain)

  • Hypnosis (self-hypnosis, hypnotherapist - to distract from pain)

  • Entonox ("gas and air")

  • Opioids (strong pain killers, intramuscularly given by midwife)

  • Epidural (commonly used in labour)

  • Spinal (rarely used in labour)

  • CSE (Combined Spinal-Epidural)

  • PCA (Patient-Controlled Analgesia, intravenous "pain pump")

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