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Surgical replacement of a diseased aortic valve (narrowing or leaking aortic valve) with mechanical (carbon) or biological (from animal tissue) valves. It is usually carried out as open heart surgery. If a patient is too frail to have open heart surgery or is at a high risk of complication, alternatives may be balloon dilatation of the diseased valve or valve implantation through a large artery in the groin.
Application of an electric shock to the chest to convert an irregular and/or fast heartbeat into a normal regular / slower heartbeat
Bypassing a blocked blood vessel of the heart (coronary artery stenosis) with an arterial or venous graft (mostly taken from a vein of the leg)
Insertion of a small alectrical device (pacemaker, defibrillation device) under the skin near the collar bone to keep the heart beating regularly. It is carried for an abnormally slow or fast heart rate. The batteries of the electrical device usually last 6-10 years.

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