This website works best with JavaScript enabled

Pain is an “unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with tissue damage or potential tissue damage” (Ref:

Pain occurs after an injury, a cut and a surgical procedure / operation.

Everybody perceives pain differently, therefore the intensity of pain after surgery depends on the individual pain threshold and also the patient’s mental state or condition.

Acute pain can be a useful protective mechanism: the hand, arm, foot and/or leg are withdrawn after a painful injury, such as a burn or stepping on glass with the bare feet.

On the opposite, chronic pain (which is pain lasting more than 3 or 6 months) is not protective and can be unhelpful, and it may affect mobility and physical function, work and quality of life in general.

Psychologically, pain may lead to fear-avoidance behaviour, anxiety, mood disturbance (depression) and disturbed sleep.

There is some evidence that long-term pain conditions can reduce life expectancy. Pain can have an effect on the cardiovascular system (Raised blood pressure, heart attacks, stroke, DVT/PE due to stress and inactivity), the respiratory system (chest infection) and the immune system (prolonged wound healing).

Economically, pain is a major cost factor, causing indirect (reduced ability to work) and direct costs (repeated GP and hospital visits, medication, aids).

Please Donate 

Follow Us 


#fc3424 #5835a1 #1975f2 #2fc86b #f_syc9 #eef77 #020614063440